Learning Curves for Noisy Heterogeneous Feature-Subsampled Ridge Ensembles

Published: 21 Sept 2023, Last Modified: 09 Jan 2024NeurIPS 2023 posterEveryoneRevisionsBibTeX
Keywords: ridge regression, ensembling methods
TL;DR: We derive learning curves for feature-subsampled ridge ensembles and show that structural heterogeneity acts as an implicit regularizer.
Abstract: Feature bagging is a well-established ensembling method which aims to reduce prediction variance by combining predictions of many estimators trained on subsets or projections of features. Here, we develop a theory of feature-bagging in noisy least-squares ridge ensembles and simplify the resulting learning curves in the special case of equicorrelated data. Using analytical learning curves, we demonstrate that subsampling shifts the double-descent peak of a linear predictor. This leads us to introduce heterogeneous feature ensembling, with estimators built on varying numbers of feature dimensions, as a computationally efficient method to mitigate double-descent. Then, we compare the performance of a feature-subsampling ensemble to a single linear predictor, describing a trade-off between noise amplification due to subsampling and noise reduction due to ensembling. Our qualitative insights carry over to linear classifiers applied to image classification tasks with realistic datasets constructed using a state-of-the-art deep learning feature map.
Submission Number: 9010